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Launchpad LaunchPad for Ways of the World with Sources (Twelve Month Access)
Fourth Edition   ©2019

LaunchPad for Ways of the World with Sources (Twelve Month Access)

A Brief Global History

Robert W. Strayer , Eric W. Nelson

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-10982-9; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-10982-0; Format: LaunchPad

The Combined Volume includes all chapters.
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-12.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 12-23.

NOTE: LaunchPad material that does not appear in the print book – including guided reading exercises, quizzes for sources and features, LearningCurve adaptive quizzes, summative quizzes, all of the documents from the companion reader Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, and quizzes for each of the documents in the companion reader – has been labeled on this table of contents as shown. Each chapter in LaunchPad also comes with a wealth of additional documents, key terms flashcards, map quizzes, and much more, all of which can be easily integrated and assigned.

Preface
Versions and Supplements
Brief Contents
Contents
Maps
Features
Working with Evidence
Prologue

PART 1 First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 600 b.c.e.

THE BIG PICTURE Turning Points in Early World History

The Emergence of Humankind

The Globalization of Humankind

The Revolution of Farming and Herding

The Turning Point of Civilization

Time and World History

LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (to ca. 600 b.c.e.)

1. FIRST PEOPLES; FIRST FARMERS: MOST OF HISTORY IN A SINGLE CHAPTER, TO 3500 B.C.E.

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Out of Africa: First Migrations

Into Eurasia

Into Australia

Into the Americas

Into the Pacific

Paleolithic Lifeways

The First Human Societies

Economy and the Environment

The Realm of the Spirit

Settling Down: The Great Transition

Breakthroughs to Agriculture

Common Patterns

Variations

The Globalization of Agriculture

Triumph and Resistance

The Culture of Agriculture

Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture

Pastoral Societies

Agricultural Village Societies

Chiefdoms

Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 1

CONTROVERSIES: Debating the Timescales of History

Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad

ZOOMING IN: Göbekli Tepe: Monumental Construction before Agriculture

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Australian Dreamtime

Source 1.1 Understanding Creation: Yhi Brings Life to the World, Oral tradition recorded in 20th century

Quiz for Source 1.1 LaunchPad

Source 1.2 The Rainbow Serpent: The Rainbow Serpent Awakens, Oral tradition recorded in 20th century

Quiz for Source 1.2 LaunchPad

Source 1.3 Explaining the World in Aboriginal Rock Art: Namondjok and the Lightning Man

Quiz for Source 1.3 LaunchPad

Source 1.4 Understanding Death: How Death Came: The Purukapali Myth, Oral tradition recorded in 20th century

Quiz for Source 1.4 LaunchPad

Source 1.5 Hunting in Aboriginal Rock Art: Aboriginal Hunters

Quiz for Source 1.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Australian Aboriginal Culture

Voice 1.1 Dale Kerwin on the Economic and Social Life of Aboriginal Australians, from Aboriginal Dreaming Paths and Trading Routes, 2012

Voice 1.2 Barbara West on Aboriginal Dreamtime Cosmology, from A Brief History of Australia, 2010

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

1. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: History Before Writing: How Do We Know?
Source 1.1: A Gathering and Hunting Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman: Life in the Bush, 1971

Quiz for Source 1.1 LaunchPad

Source 1.2: Paleolithic Rock Art: A Hunting Scene: Lascaux Rock Art, ca. 15000 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 1.2 LaunchPad

Source 1.3: Neolithic Art: A Goddess Figure? Female Figurine from Çatalhüyük, ca. 5000 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 1.3 LaunchPad

Source 1.4: Otzi the Ice Man: Artist’s Reconstruction of Otzi; Otzi the Ice Man’s Preserved Body

Quiz for Source 1.1 LaunchPad

Source 1.5: Monumental Stone Construction in the Neolithic Era: Stonehenge, ca. 1600 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 1.5 LaunchPad

Draw Conclusions from the Evidence for Thinking through Sources LaunchPad

Essay Questions for Thinking through Sources LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Transition to Agriculture

Voice 1.1: Jared Diamond on the Decision to Farm, 1997

Voice 1.2: Yuval Noah Harari on the Myth of Progress through Agriculture, 2015

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

2. FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: CITIES, STATES, AND UNEQUAL SOCIETIES, 3500 B.C.E.–600 B.C.E.

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations

Introducing the First Civilizations

The Question of Origins

An Urban Revolution

The Erosion of Equality

Hierarchies of Class

Hierarchies of Gender

Patriarchy in Practice

The Rise of the State

Coercion and Consent

Writing and Accounting

The Grandeur of Kings

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt

Environment and Culture

Cities and States

Interaction and Exchange

Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 2

ZOOMING IN: Caral, a City of Norte Chico

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Indus Valley Civilization

Source 2.1 Cityscape of Mohenjo Daro: Wall Painting of Mohenjo Daro Reconstruction, 20th century

Quiz for Source 2.1 LaunchPad

Source 2.2 A Seal from the Indus Valley: A Humped Cattle Seal from Mohenjo Daro, 19th century b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 2.2 LaunchPad

Source 2.3 Man from Mohenjo Daro: A Royal Priest of Harappa, 3rd millennium b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 2.3 LaunchPad

Source 2.4 Cart and Oxen from Monhenjo Daro: Stone Model of a Cart Pulled by Two Oxen, ca. 2400 b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 2.4 LaunchPad

Source 2.5 Dancing Girl: An Indus Valley Girl, ca. 2500 b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 2.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The State . . . or Its Absence . . . in the Indus Valley

Voice 2.1 Gregory Possehl on Indus Valley Civilization in Context, from The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, 2002

Voice 2.2 Jonathan Kenoyer on Political Life in the Indus Valley, from Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, 1998

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

2. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES:  Social Life in the First Civilizations

Source 2.1: Law and Life in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1750 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 2.1 LaunchPad

Source 2.2: The Standard of Ur: Peace Panel; War Panel, ca. 2500 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 2.3 LaunchPad

Source 2.3: The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca. 2066–1650 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 2.3 LaunchPad

Source 2.4: The Social Relationships of Egyptian Agriculture: Agricultural Scenes from the Tomb of Menna, Fourteenth Century B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 2.4 LaunchPad

Source 2.5: Social Life in Ancient China: The Book of Songs, ca. 1046–771 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 2.5 LaunchPad

Source 2.6: Socializing with Ancestors: A Ritual Food Container, ca. 1050 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 2.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Sumerian Society

Voice 2.1: Lauren Ristvet on Sumerian Specialization, 2007

Voice 2.2: Samuel Kramer on Scribes and Schools, 1956

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

PART 2 Continuity and Change in the Second-Wave Era, 600 b.c.e.–600 c.e.

THE BIG PICTURE The Globalization of Civilization

LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (600 b.c.e.–600 c.e.)

3. STATE AND EMPIRE IN EURASIA / NORTH AFRICA, 600 B.C.E.–600 C.E.

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks

The Persian Empire

The Greeks

Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars

Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era

Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese

Rome: From City-State to Empire

China: From Warring States to Empire

Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires

The Collapse of Empires

Intermittent Empire: The Case of India

Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 3

ZOOMING IN: Trung Trac: Resisting the Chinese Empire

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Perceptions of Outsiders in the Ancient World

Source 3.1 A Greek Historian on Persia: Herodotus, The Histories, mid-5th century b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 3.1 LaunchPad

Source 3.2 A Greek Goldsmith Depicts the Scythians: Scythian Cup, Crimea, 4th century b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 3.2 LaunchPad

Source 3.3 A Roman Historian on the Germans: Tacitus, Germania, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 3.3 LaunchPad

Source 3.4 A Roman Depiction of Sarmatians: Scene from Trajan’s Column, Rome, 107–113 c.e.

Quiz for Source 3.4 LaunchPad

Source 3.5 A Chinese Historian on the Xiongnu: Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, ca. 100 b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 3.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES:  Early Sources on Foreign Cultures

Voice 3.1 Stephen Gosch and Peter Stearns on Travelers’ Accounts as Historical Sources, from Premodern Travel in World History, 2008

Voice 3.2 Jerry Bentley on the Idea of "Barbarian," from Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times, 1993

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

3. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Political Authority in Second-Wave Civilizations

Source 3.1: The Triumphs of the Persian Emperor Darius: Behistun Inscription: The Sculpture; Opening Lines, ca. 500 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 3.1 LaunchPad

Source 3.2: In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles: Funeral Oration, 431–430 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 3.1 LaunchPad

Source 3.3: Depicting the First Roman Emperor: Augustus Statue; Augustus Statue: The Breastplate, First Century B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 3.2 LaunchPad

Source 3.4: Governing a Chinese Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei, Third Century B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 3.4 LaunchPad

Source 3.5: A Chinese Emperor Prepares for his Death: Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex; Archer; Bronze Horse-Drawn Cart, Third Century B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 3.5 LaunchPad

Source 3.6: Governing an Indian Empire: Ashoka, The Rock Edicts, ca. 268-232 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 3.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Emperors in the Second Wave Era

Voice 3.1: Yuri Pines on the Authority and Power of a Chinese Emperor, 2012

Voice 3.2: Kevin McGeough on the First Roman Emperor, 2004

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

4. CULTURE AND RELIGION IN EURASIA / NORTH AFRICA, 600 B.C.E.–600 C.E.

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

China and the Search for Order

The Legalist Answer

The Confucian Answer

The Daoist Answer

Cultural Traditions of Classical India

South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation

The Buddhist Challenge

Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion

Toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East

Zoroastrianism

Judaism

The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order

The Greek Way of Knowing

The Greek Legacy

The Birth of Christianity . . . with Buddhist Comparisons

The Lives of the Founders

The Spread of New Religions

Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions

Reflections: Religion and Historians

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 4

ZOOMING IN: Perpetua, Christian Martyr

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

CONTROVERSIES: Debating Religion and the Axial Age

Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Representations of the Buddha

Source 4.1 A Greco-Indian Buddha: The Temptation of the Buddha

Quiz for Source 4.1 LaunchPad

Source 4.2 A Classical Indian Buddha: An Indian Buddha

Quiz for Source 4.2 LaunchPad

Source 4.3 The Reputation of the Buddha in Ancient Buddhist Stories: The Greater Discourse to Sakuludayin, ca. 1st century b.c.e.

Quiz for Source 4.3 LaunchPad

Source 4.4 A Korean Bodhisattva of Compassion: A Bodhisattva of Compassion: Avalokitesvara with a Thousand Arms

Quiz for Source 4.4 LaunchPad

Source 4.5 The Buddha and the Outcast: Sunita the Outcaste

Quiz for Source 4.5 LaunchPad

Source 4.6 A Chinese Buddha: The Chinese Maitreya Buddha

Quiz for Source 4.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: On the Buddha

Voice 4.1 John Strong on the Context of the Buddha’s Life, from The Buddha: A Short Biography, 2001

Voice 4.2 Karen Armstrong on the Buddha and Biography, from Buddha, 2001

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

4. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The "Good Life" in Asian Cultural Traditions

Source 4.1: Reflections from Confucius: Confucius: The Analects, ca. 479–221 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 4.1 LaunchPad

Source 4.2: Filial Piety Illustrated: Children Honoring Parents, ca. 200 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 4.2 LaunchPad

Source 4.3: A Daoist Perspective on the Good Life: Laozi: Daodejing, 500 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 4.3 LaunchPad

Source 4.4: Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth to Second Century B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 4.4 LaunchPad

Source 4.5: Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70–100 C.E.

Quiz for Source 4.5 LaunchPad

Source 4.6: Toward "Mature Manhood": Ladder of Divine Ascent, ca. Sixth or Seventh Century

Quiz for Source 4.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Historical Jesus

Voice 4.1: Reza Aslan on Jesus as Zealot, 2013

Voice 4.2: Marcus Borg on Jesus as Spirit Person, 1995

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

5. SOCIETY AND INEQUALITY IN EURASIA / NORTH AFRICA, 600 B.C.E.–600 C.E.

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Society and the State in China

An Elite of Officials

The Landlord Class

Peasants

Merchants

Class and Caste in India

Caste as Varna

Caste as Jati

The Functions of Caste

Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire

Slavery and Civilization

The Making of Roman Slavery

Comparing Patriarchies

A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China

Contrasting Patriarchies: Athens and Sparta

Reflections: What Changes? What Persists?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 5

ZOOMING IN: The Spartacus Slave Revolt

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Pompeii as a Window on the Roman World

Source 5.1 Terentius Neo and His Wife: An Elite Couple of Pompeii, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 5.1 LaunchPad

Source 5.2 A Pompeii Banquet: A Dinner with Friends, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 5.2 LaunchPad

Source 5.3 From a Pompeii Tavern: An Evening Out at a Pompeii Bar, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 5.3 LaunchPad

Source 5.4 The Graffiti of Pompeii: The Grafitti of Pompeii, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 5.4 LaunchPad

Source 5.5 Household Religion in Pompeii: A Household Shrine from Pompeii, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 5.5 LaunchPad

Source 5.6 Mystery Religion in Pompeii: An Initiation Ritual, 1st century c.e.

Quiz for Source 5.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: On Pompeii

Voice 5.1 Mary Beard on the Artifacts of Pompeii, from "Pompeii Exhibition," 2017

Voice 5.2 Andrew Wilson and Miko Flohr on the Economy of Pompeii, from The Economy of Pompeii, 2017

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

5. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Patriarchy and Women’s Voices

Source 5.1: A Greek Expression of Patriarchy: Aristotle: "On a Good Wife," ca. 330 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 5.1 LaunchPad

Source 5.2: Gravestone Image of a Greek Husband and Wife: A Greek Cemetery Sculpture, ca. 400 B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 5.2 LaunchPad

Source 5.3: An Indian Expression of Patriarchy: The Laws of Manu, 200–400 C.E.

Quiz for Source 5.3 LaunchPad

Source 5.4: A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhao: Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.

Quiz for Source 5.4 LaunchPad

Source 5.5: An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters, First Century B.C.E.

Quiz for Source 5.5 LaunchPad

Source 5.6: Roman Women in Protest: Livy: History of Rome, Early First Century C.E.

Quiz for Source 5.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Elite Greek Women in the Public Sphere

Voice 5.1: Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones on the Veil in Ancient Greece, From Aphrodite’s Tortoise: The Veiled Woman of Ancient Greece, 2003

Voice 5.2: Joan Breton Connelly on Priestesses and Public Life in Ancient Greece, From Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 2007

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

6. COMMONALITIES AND VARIATIONS: AFRICA, THE AMERICAS, AND PACIFIC OCEANIA, 600 B.C.E.–1200 C.E.

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Continental Comparisons

Civilizations of Africa

Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization

Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom

Along the Niger River: Cities without States

Civilizations of Mesoamerica

The Maya: Writing and Warfare

Teotihuacán: The Americas’ Greatest City

Civilizations of the Andes

Chavín: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement

Moche: A Civilization of the Coast

Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior

Alternatives to Civilization

Bantu Africa: Cultural Encounters and Social Variation

North America: Ancestral Pueblo and Mound Builders

Pacific Oceania: Peoples of the Sea

Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in the Writing of World History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 6

ZOOMING IN: The Lord of Sipan and the Lady of Cao

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Axum and the World

Source 6.1 The Making of an Axumite Empire: Inscription on a Stone Throne, 2nd or 3rd century c.e.

Quiz for Source 6.1 LaunchPad

Source 6.2 The Columns of Axum: An Axumite Monument, late 3rd or early 4th century c.e

Quiz for Source 6.2 LaunchPad

Source 6.3 The Coming of Christianity to Axum: Rufinus, On the Evangelization of Abyssinia, late 4th century c.e.

Quiz for Source 6.3 LaunchPad

Source 6.4 Axum and the Gold Trade: Cosmas, The Gold Trade of Axum, 6th century c.e.

Quiz for Source 6.4 LaunchPad

Source 6.5 Axum Gold Coin: A "Christian Coin" from Axum

Quiz for Source 6.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Christian Axum

Voice 6.1 Erik Gilbert and Jonathan Reynolds on the Transregional Nature of Early Christianity, from African World History, 2004

Voice 6.2 Christopher Ehret on the Role of Trade in the Coming of Christianity to Axum, from The Civilizations of Africa, 2002

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

6. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Art and the Maya Elite

Source 6.1: A Royal Couple from Yaxchilan: Stone Carving of Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok, 724 C.E.

Quiz for Source 6.1 LaunchPad

Source 6.2: Mayan Prisoners of War and Their Captors: Mural Depicting the Presentation of Captives, 792 C.E.

Quiz for Source 6.2 LaunchPad

Source 6.3: Nourishing the Gods: Stone Carving of a Bloodletting Ritual, 709 C.E.

Quiz for Source 6.3 LaunchPad

Source 6.4: Sport as Recreation and Ritual: Vase Painting of a Ball Game, Seventh or Eighth Century

Quiz for Source 6.4 LaunchPad

Source 6.5: A Maya Ruler Relaxing: Image of a Maya King at Leisure, Seventh or Eighth Century

Quiz for Source 6.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Comparing the Maya with Other Civilizations

Voice 6.1: Charles C. Mann on Mayan Political Culture, From 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus, 2011

Voice 6.2: J.R. McNeill and William H. McNeill on Mayan Agriculture, From The Human Web: A Bird’s-Eye View of World History, 2003

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

PART 3 Civilizations and Encounters during the Third-Wave Era, 600–1450

THE BIG PICTURE Patterns and Processes of the Third-Wave Era

Third-Wave Civilizations

The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third-Wave Era

LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (600–1450)

7. COMMERCE AND CULTURE, 600–1450

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia

The Growth of the Silk Roads

Goods in Transit

Cultures in Transit

Disease in Transit

Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean

Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World

Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia

Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa

Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara

Commercial Beginnings in West Africa

Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa

An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere

Reflections: Economic Globalization — Ancient and Modern

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 7

ZOOMING IN: The Arabian Camel

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Travelers’ Tales and Observations

Source 7.1 A Chinese Buddhist in India: Xuanzang, Record of the Western Region, 7th century c.e.

Quiz for Source 7.1 LaunchPad

Source 7.2 A European Christian in China: Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, 1299

Quiz for Source 7.2 LaunchPad

Source 7.3 A European Artist Depicts Asia: The Marvelous Races of the East, ca. 1410

Quiz for Source 7.3 LaunchPad

Source 7.4 A Moroccan Diplomat in West Africa: Leo Africanus, The History and Description of Africa,

1526

Quiz for Source 7.4 LaunchPad

Source 7.5 A Korean World Map: The Honkoji Copy of the Kangnido Map, Korea, 15th century

Quiz for Source 7.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: On Travel Writers

Voice 7.1 John Larner on Whether Polo Really Traveled to China, from Marco Polo and the Discovery of the World, 1999

Voice 7.2 Natalie Zemon Davis on Leo Africanus’s Audiences, from Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-Century Muslim between Worlds, 2006

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

7. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Life and Travel on the Silk Roads

Source 7.1: Dangers and Assistance on the Silk Roads: Cave Painting of Silk Road Merchants Encountering Bandits, Eighth Century

Quiz for Source 7.1 LaunchPad

Source 7.2: Travel on the Silk Roads: Francesco Pegolotti: Advice for European Merchants Traveling to China, ca. 1340

Quiz for Source 7.2 LaunchPad

Source 7.3: Stopping at a Caravanserai: Mural Depicting a Caravanserai Site, Sixth Century

Quiz for Source 7.3 LaunchPad

Source 7.4: Buddhism on the Silk Roads: Regulations for a Community of Monks, Third Century C.E.; Faxian: A Record of the Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 416

Quiz for Source 7.4 LaunchPad

Source 7.5: Christianity on the Silk Roads: The Jesus Sutras, 635–1005

Quiz for Source 7.5 LaunchPad

Source 7.6: Letters from the Silk Road: From a Soldier on Guard Duty, 103 B.C.E–40 C.E.; From an Abandoned Wife, Early Fourth Century C.E.

Quiz for Source 7.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing the Importance of the Silk Roads

Voice 7.1: Valerie Hansen on the Least Traveled Route, From The Silk Road: A New History, 2012

Voice 7.2: Zinru Liu on the Importance of the Silk Roads, From The Silk Roads: A Brief History with Documents, 2012

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

8. CHINA AND THE WORLD: EAST ASIAN CONNECTIONS, 600–1300

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China

A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement

Women in the Song Dynasty

China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making

The Tribute System in Theory

The Tribute System in Practice

Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier

Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan

Korea and China

Vietnam and China

Japan and China

China and the Eurasian World Economy

Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia

On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary

China and Buddhism

Making Buddhism Chinese

Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism

Reflections: Why Do Things Change?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 8

ZOOMING IN: Gunpowder

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: China’s Scholar-Officials

Source 8.1 Scholar-Officials and the Emperor: Scholars Gathering in a Bamboo Garden

Quiz for Source 8.1 LaunchPad

Source 8.2 A Gathering of Scholars: Scholars of the Liuli Hall, late 13th century

Quiz for Source 8.2 LaunchPad

Source 8.3 A Solitary Scholar: Ma Yuan, On a Mountain Path in Spring, early 13th century

Quiz for Source 8.3 LaunchPad

Source 8.4 Tang Dynasty Poetry

Li Po, The Mountain and Me, 8th century

Li Po, Drinking Alone with the Moon, 8th century

Wang Wei, My Retreat at Mount Zhongnan, 8th century

Du Fu, A View of Taishan, 8th century

Quiz for Source 8.4 LaunchPad

Source 8.5 Scholar-Officials at Play: Gu Hongzhong, The Night Revels of Han Xizai, 10th century

Quiz for Source 8.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing China’s Scholar-Officials

Voice 8.1 Jacques Garnet on the "Learned Culture" of Song Dynasty China, from A History of Chinese Civilization, 1996

Voice 8.2 David Hinton on "Public Service" and "Mountain Seclusion," from Mountain Home: The Wilderness Poetry of Ancient China, 2005

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

8. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The Making of Japanese Civilization

Source 8.1: Japanese Political Thinking: Shotoku: The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604 C.E.

Quiz for Source 8.1 LaunchPad

Source 8.2: The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa: The Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339

Quiz for Source 8.2 LaunchPad

Source 8.3: Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon: Pillow Book, ca. 1000

Quiz for Source 8.3 LaunchPad

Source 8.4: Japanese Zen Buddhism: Su Dongpo in Straw Hat and Wooden Shoes, Fifteenth Century

Quiz for Source 8.4 LaunchPad

Source 8.5: The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yoshimasa: Advice to Young Samurai, ca. 1400; Imagawa Ryoshun: The Imagawa Letter, 1412

Quiz for Source 8.5 LaunchPad

Source 8.6: Samurai and the "Arts of Peace": Kojima Takanori Writing a Poem on a Cherry Tree, Fourteenth Century

Quiz for Source 8.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: China’s Influence in the Making of Japanese Civilization

Voice 8.1: Milton Walter Meyer on China’s Influence on Japan’s First Imperial State, From Japan: A Concise History, 2009

Voice 8.2: Matthew Stavros on China’s Influence on the Capital City of Kyoto, From Kyoto: an urban history of Japan’s premodern capital, 2014

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9. THE WORLDS OF ISLAM: AFRO-EURASIAN CONNECTIONS, 600–1450

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

The Birth of a New Religion

The Homeland of Islam

The Messenger and the Message

The Transformation of Arabia

The Making of an Arab Empire

War, Conquest, and Tolerance

Conversion

Divisions and Controversies

Women and Men in Early Islam

Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison

The Case of India

The Case of Anatolia

The Case of West Africa

The Case of Spain

The World of Islam as a New Civilization

Networks of Faith

Networks of Exchange

Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 9

ZOOMING IN: Mullah Nasruddin, the Wise Fool of Islam

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Islamic World in the Seventh Century

Source 9.1 Muhammad and the Angel Gabriel: Muhammad and the Archangel Gabriel, ca. 1307

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Source 9.2 Muhammad in Jerusalem: Aqa Mirak, The Night Journey of Muhammad, ca. 16th century

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Source 9.3 Victory in Mecca: Mir Havand, The Cleansing of the Kaaba, ca. 1590

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Source 9.4 Conflict and Division: The Emergence of Shia Islam: Ali ibn Husayn, Poem, ca. 680

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Source 9.5 Conquest

Text of Thomas the Presbyter, 640 c.e.

Pact of Ibn Muslama and the People of Tiflis, 653

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Source 9.6 Governing an Empire: Caliph Ali, Letter to Malik Ashtar, 658 c.e.

Quiz for Source 9.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing the Prophet Muhammad

Voice 9.1 Francis Robinson on Western Attitudes to Muhammad, from Cambridge Illustrated History: Islamic World, 1996

Voice 9.2 Karen Armstrong on Muslim Devotion to the Prophet, from Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, 1992

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9. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Voices of Islam

Source 9.1: The Voice of Allah: The Quran, Seventh Century C.E.

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Source 9.2: The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadiths, Eighth and Ninth Centuries

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Source 9.3: The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, Ninth Century

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Source 9.4: The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Poem, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Mathnawi, Thirteenth Century

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Source 9.5: Islamic Practice in West Africa: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa, 1354

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Source 9.6: Men and Women at Worship: A Painting of a Muslim Congregation in a Mosque, Sixteenth Century

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Significance of Sufism

Voice 9.1: John Esposito on Sufi Spirituality, From The Islamic Threat: Myth of Reality, 1992

Voice 9.2: Nile Green on Sufi Power, From Sufism: A Global History, 2012

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10. THE WORLDS OF CHRISTENDOM: CONTRACTION, EXPANSION, AND DIVISION, 600–1450

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa

Asian Christianity

African Christianity

Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past

The Byzantine State

The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence

Byzantium and the World

The Conversion of Russia

Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse

Political Life in Western Europe

Society and the Church

Accelerating Change in the West

Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition

The West in Comparative Perspective

Catching Up

Pluralism in Politics

Reason and Faith

Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 10

ZOOMING IN: Cecilia Penifader, an English Peasant and Unmarried Woman

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Remaking of Western Europe

Source 10.1 The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, late 6th Century

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Source 10.2 Advice on Dealing with "Pagans": Pope Gregory, Advice to the English Church, 601

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Source 10.3 Pagan Art and Christian Texts: Lindisfarne Gospel, 698–721

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Source 10.4 Germanic Law: Burgundian Code, ca. 474 c.e.

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Source 10.5 Charlemagne’s Palace Chapel: Aachen Palace Chapel, completed 805 c.e.

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Legacy of Rome

Voice 10.1 Blockmans and Hoppenbrouwers on the End of Roman Civilization, from Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500, 2014

Voice 10.2 Cunliffe on Charlemagne, from Europe between the Oceans, 9000 BC–AD 1000, 2008

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10. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The Crusades as Cultural Encounter

Source 10.1: A Western Christian Perspective: Pope Urban II: Speech at Clermont, 1095

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Source 10.2: Jewish Experience of the Crusades: Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle: An Account of Attacks on Jews during the First Crusade, Early to Mid-Twelfth Century

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Source 10.3: Muslim Perspectives on the Crusades: Ibn al-Athir: The Complete History, ca. 1231

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Source 10.4: Jerusalem and the Crusades in European Art: The Looting of Jerusalem, 1099; How Jerusalem Was Captured by Saladin, 1187

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Source 10.5: A Byzantine Perspective on the Crusades: Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople, 1204

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Source 10.6: Admiration and Accommodation across the Religious Divide: Usmah Ibn Munqidh: Christian Piety and Muslim Piety, Mid-Twelfth Century; Fulcher of Chartres: The Latins in the East, Early Twelfth Century

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Pope’s Agenda for the First Crusade

Voice 10.1: David Levine on Success in Reigning in Noble Violence, From At the Dawn of Modernity: Biology, Culture and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000, 2001

Voice 10.2: Malcolm Barber on Religious Reconciliation and the First Crusade, From The Two Cities: Medieval Europe 1050-1320, 1992

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11. PASTORAL PEOPLES ON THE GLOBAL STAGE: THE MONGOL MOMENT, 1200–1450

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

The Long History of Pastoral Peoples

The World of Pastoral Societies

Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History

Breakout: The Mongol Empire

From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire

Explaining the Mongol Moment

Encountering the Mongols in China, Persia, and Russia

China and the Mongols

Persia and the Mongols

Russia and the Mongols

The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network

Toward a World Economy

Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale

Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm

The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic

Reflections: Changing Images of Pastoral Peoples

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 11

ZOOMING IN: A Mongol Failure: The Invasion of Japan

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

CONTROVERSIES: Debating Empires

Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Perceptions of the Mongols

Source 11.1 The Self-Perception of Mongol Rulers

Chinggis Khan, Letter to Changchun, 1219

The Secret History of the Mongols, ca. 1240

Quiz for Source 11.1 LaunchPad

Source 11.2 Picturing Khubilai Khan

Liu Guandao, Khubilai on a Hunt, 1280

Marco Polo and Khubilai Khan, 15th century

Khubilai Khan in Council with His Courtiers and Scribes, 1590

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Source 11.3 A Persian View of the Conquest of Bukhara: Juvaini, The History of the World Conqueror, 1219

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Source 11.4 A European View of Mongol Life: William of Rubruck, Journey to the Land of the Mongols, ca. 1255

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing the Mongol Impact

Voice 11.1 Jack Weatherford on the Mongols in World History, from Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, 2004

Voice 11.2 Paul S. Ropp on the Mongol Impact on China’s Economy, from China in World History, 2010

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11. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Living and Dying During the Black Death

Source 11.1: The Black Death in the Islamic World: Ibn al-Wardi: Report of the Pestilence, 1348

Quiz for Source 11.1 LaunchPad

Source 11.2: The Black Death in Western Europe: Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron, Mid-Fourteenth Century

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Source 11.3: The Black Death in Byzantium: Emperor John VI of Byzantium: Historarum, Mid- to Late Fourteenth Century

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Source 11.4: Religious Responses in the Islamic World: Ibn Kathir: The Beginning and the End: On History, ca. 1350–1351

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Source 11.5: Picturing Religious Responses in the Christian World: The Flagellants, 1349; A Culture of Death, 1463

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Source 11.6: The Black Death and European Jews: Jacob Von Königshofen: About the Great Plague and the Burning of the Jews, ca. Early Fifteenth Century

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Source 11.7: A Government’s Response to the Plague: Ordinances against the Spread of Plague, Pistoia, 1348

Quiz for Source 11.7 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Winners and Losers in Europe after the Plague

Voice 11.1 Harry Miskimin on the Rural Economy after the Plague, From The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300-1460, 1975

Voice 11.2: Mavis Mate on the Effects of the Black Death on Women, From Daughters, Wives, and Widows after the Black Death, 1998

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

12. THE WORLDS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Societies and Cultures of the Fifteenth Century

Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America

Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois

Pastoral Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe

Ming Dynasty China

European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal

European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World

In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas

The Aztec Empire

The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection

After 1500: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era

Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 12

ZOOMING IN: 1453 in Constantinople

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Islam and Renaissance Europe

Source 12.1 Portrait of Mehmed II: Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II, ca. 1479

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Source 12.2 Machiavelli on the Turkish State: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, 1513

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Source 12.3 Venetian Trade in the Middle East: The Venetian Ambassador Visits Damascus, 1511

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Source 12.4 Greek and Islamic Philosophers in Renaissance Art: Aristotle and Averroes, 1483

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Source 12.5 A Papal Call for Crusade: Pope Clement VI, Call for Crusade, September 30, 1343

Quiz for Source 12.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Christian/Muslim Relations during the Renaissance

Voice 12.1 Jerry Brotton on the Role of Cross-cultural Exchange in the European Renaissance, from The Renaissance Bazaar: From the Silk Road to Michelangelo, 2002

Voice 12.2 Bernard Lewis on Hostility between Christians and Muslims, from Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims and Jews in the Age of Discovery, 1995

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12. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Early Encounters; First Impressions

Source 12.1: Cadamosto in a West African Chiefdom: Alvise da Cadamosto: On Meeting with Budomel, 1455

Quiz for Source 12.1 LaunchPad

Source 12.2: Vasco da Gama at Calicut, India: A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1498

Quiz for Source 12.2 LaunchPad

Source 12.3: Celebrating de Gama’s Arrival in Calicut, Tapestry Depicting the Arrival of da Gama at Calicut, Early Sixteenth Century

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Source 12.4: Columbus in the Caribbean: Christopher Columbus: Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1493

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Source 12.5: Columbus Engraved: Columbus Arriving on Hispaniola, 1594

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing Christopher Columbus and his Legacy

Voice 12.1: Zvi Dor-Ner on Christopher Columbus’s Legacy, From Columbus and the Age of Discovery, 1991

Voice 12.2: Charles Mann on Remembering Columbus, From 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, 2012

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

PART 4 The Early Modern World, 1450–1750

THE BIG PICTURE Toward Modernity . . . or Not?

Sprouts of Modernity?

Continuing Older Patterns?

LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (1450–1750)

13. POLITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS: EMPIRES AND ENCOUNTERS, 1450–1750

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

European Empires in the Americas

The European Advantage

The Great Dying and the Little Ice Age

The Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas

In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas

Colonies of Sugar

Settler Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire

Experiencing the Russian Empire

Russians and Empire

Asian Empires

Making China an Empire

Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire

Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 13

ZOOMING IN: Doña Marina: Between Two Worlds

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: State Building in the Early Modern Era

Source 13.1 The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs, 1605–1627

Quiz for Source 13.1 LaunchPad

Source 13.2 The Palace of an Ottoman Emperor: A Reception at the Court of Selim III, late 18th Century

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Source 13.3 French State Building and Louis XIV

Louis XIV, Memoirs, 1670

Louis XIV in Costume, 1653

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Source 13.4 An Outsider’s View of the Inca Empire: Pedro de Cieza de León, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550

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Source 13.5 The Temple of Heaven: Beijing, China: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest, ca. 1420

Quiz for Source 13.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Early Modern Rulers

Voice 13.1 Charles Parker on Emperor Kangxi of China and Louis XIV of France, from Global Interactions in the Early Modern Age, 1400–1800, 2010

Voice 13.2 John Darwin on Emperor Akbar’s Public Image, from After Tamerlane: The Rise and Fall of Global Empires 1400–2000, 2008

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13. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The Spanish and the Aztecs: From Encounter to Conquest (1519-1521)

Source 13.1: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: A Spanish View: Bernal Díaz: The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Mid-Sixteenth Century

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Source 13.2: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: An Aztec Account: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth Century

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Source 13.3: Images of Encounter: Moctezuma and Cortés, 1560; The Massacre of the Nobles, 1581

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Source 13.4: Conquest and Victory: The Fall of Tenochtitlán from a Spanish Perspective: Francisco de Aguilar: Brief Record of the Conquest of New Spain, ca. 1560

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Source 13.5: Defeat: The Fall of Tenochtitlán from an Aztec Perspective: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth Century

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Source 13.6: Depicting the Seizure of the Aztec Capital: The Conquest of Tenochtitlán, Seventeenth Century

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Source 13.7: Lamentation: The Aftermath of Defeat: Cantares Mexicanos, Late Sixteenth Century

Quiz for Source 13.7 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Conquest, Disease and Demographic Collapse in the Aztec Empire

Voice 13.1: Alfred Crosby on the Impact of Disease on the Conquest of the Aztec Empire, From The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, 1972

Voice 13.2: Philip Hoffman on the Roles of Disease, Social Disruption and Technology in the Conquest of the Aztecs, From Why did Europe Conquer the World, 2015

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

14. ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS: COMMERCE AND CONSEQUENCE, 1450–1750

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Europeans and Asian Commerce

A Portuguese Empire of Commerce

Spain and the Philippines

The East India Companies

Asians and Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce

"The World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce

Commerce in People: The Transatlantic Slave System

The Slave Trade in Context

The Slave Trade in Practice

Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization Then and Now

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 14

ZOOMING IN: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo: To Slavery and Back

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

CONTROVERSIES: Debating the Atlantic World

Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World

Source 14.1 Clothing and Status in the Americas: Miguel Cabrera, Detail from a Series on Mixed-Race Marriages in Mexico, 1763

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Source 14.2 Clothing and Status in Europe: Portrait of Sophie of the Palatinate, 1645

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Source 14.3 A Critical View of Coffeehouses in the Ottoman Empire: Mustafa Ali, Description of Cairo, 1599

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Source 14.4 An Ottoman Coffeehouse: A Gathering of Turkish Men at an Ottoman Coffeehouse, 16th century

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Source 14.5 Coffeehouse Culture in England: Thomas Jordan, News from the Coffee-house, 1667

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Source 14.6 Tobacco Smoking in Eurasia: King James I, A Counterblaste to Tobacco, 1604

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Source 14.7 Chinese Poems about Smoking: Poems from Cheng Cong’s Tobacco Manual, 17th and 18th centuries

Quiz for Source 14.7 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Coffee and Coffeeshops

Voice 14.1 Tom Standage on Muslim Debates over Coffee’s Intoxicating Effects, from A History of the World in 6 Glasses, 2005

Voice 14.2 Mark Pendergrast on London’s Coffeehouses, from Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World, 2010

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14. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Voices from the Slave Trade

Source 14.1: The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

Quiz for Source 14.1 LaunchPad

Source 14.2: The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips: A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694

Quiz for Source 14.2 LaunchPad

Source 14.3: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I: Letters to King João of Portugal, 1526

Quiz for Source 14.3 LaunchPad

Source 14.4: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu: Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

Quiz for Source 14.4 LaunchPad

Source 14.5: Images of the Slave Trade: Sale of Slaves in West Africa, 1796; The Slave Ship Wildfire, 1860; Advertisement for a Slave Auction in Charleston, SC, 1749

Quiz for Source 14.5 LaunchPad

Source 14.6: Data: Patterns of the Slave Trade: Voyages and Slave Rebellion: An Aggregate Statistic; Changing Patterns of the Slave Trade

Quiz for Source 14.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Describing the Middle Passage

Voice 14.1: Lisa Lindsay on Conditions Above and Below Deck during the Middle Passage, From Captives as Commodities: The Transatlantic Slave Trade, 2008

Voice 14.2: Johannes Postma on Mortality during the Middle Passage, From The Atlantic Slave Trade, 2003

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

15. CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS: RELIGION AND SCIENCE, 1450–1750

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

The Globalization of Christianity

Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation

Christianity Outward Bound

Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America

An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions

Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

China: New Directions in an Old Tradition

India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

The Question of Origins: Why Europe?

Science as Cultural Revolution

Science and Enlightenment

European Science beyond the West

Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century and Beyond

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 15

ZOOMING IN: Galileo and the Telescope: Reflecting on Science and Religion

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Christianity: Becoming a Global Religion

Source 15.1 Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity: La Virgen del Cerro (Virgin Mary of the Mountains), ca. 1740

Quiz for Source 15.1 LaunchPad

Source 15.2 Christianity through Maya Eyes: The Chilam Balam of Chumayel, 18th century

Quiz for Source 15.2 LaunchPad

Source 15.3 Making Christianity Chinese: Illustration of the Annunciation, ca. 17th century

Quiz for Source 15.3 LaunchPad

Source 15.4 The Chinese Rites Controversy

Papal Decree Banning Chinese Rites, 1715

Decree of Emperor Kangxi, 1721

Quiz for Source 15.4 LaunchPad

Source 15.5 Christian Art in the Mughal Empire: Unknown Indian Artist, The Holy Family, early 17th century

Quiz for Source 15.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Missions in Mesoamerica and China

Voice 15.1 Merry Wiesner-Hanks on the Virgin of Guadalupe, from A Concise History of the World, 2015

Voice 15.2 Diarmaid MacCulloch on Jesuit Missionary Strategies in China, from Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years, 2009

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15. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern World

Source 15.1: Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther: Table Talk, Early Sixteenth Century

Quiz for Source 15.1 LaunchPad

Source 15.2: Calvinism and Catholicism: Engraving of Calvinists Destroying Statues in a Catholic Church, 1566

Quiz for Source 15.2 LaunchPad

Source 15.3: Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet: Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793–1794

Quiz for Source 15.3 LaunchPad

Source 15.4: Art and Enlightenment: Joseph Wright, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery, ca. 1766

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Source 15.5: The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab: History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803

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Source 15.6: The Poetry of Kabir: Kabir: Poetry, ca. Late Fifteenth Century

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Source 15.7: Religious Syncretism in Indian Art: Kumbhaka (breathing exercises), ca. 1600

Quiz for Source 15.7 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Reform and Renewal in the Christian and Islamic Worlds

Voice 15.1: R.W. Scribner on the Evangelical Agenda in Protestant Germany, From The German Reformation, 1986

Voice 15.2: Natana DeLong-Bas on the Teachings of Ibn Abd al Wahhab, From Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad, 2004

Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad

PART 5 The European Moment in World History, 1750–1900

THE BIG PICTURE European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism

LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (1750–1900)

16. ATLANTIC REVOLUTIONS, GLOBAL ECHOES, 1750–1900

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions

The North American Revolution, 1775–1787

The French Revolution, 1789–1815

The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804

Spanish American Revolutions, 1808–1825

Echoes of Revolution

The Abolition of Slavery

Nations and Nationalism

Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions: Pro and Con

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 16

ZOOMING IN: Kartini: Feminism and Nationalism in Java

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Opponents of the Atlantic Revolutions

Source 16.1 A New York Clergyman’s Criticism of the Continental Congress: Samuel Seabury, Letter of a Westchester Farmer, 1774

Quiz for Source 16.1 LaunchPad

Source 16.2 A British Conservative’s Critique of the Universal Rights of Man: Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790

Quiz for Source 16.2 LaunchPad

Source 16.3 An English Cartoon’s Reaction to Revolutionary Violence: Hell Broke Loose, or, The Murder of Louis, 1793

Quiz for Source 16.3 LaunchPad

Source 16.4 The French National Assembly and Slavery: Decree and Explanation of the French National Assembly, May 15 and 29, 1791

Quiz for Source 16.4 LaunchPad

Source 16.5 Imagining Women’s Suffrage: An Inauguration of the Future, 1897

Quiz for Source 16.5 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: How the French Revolution Went Wrong

Voice 16.1 Tocqueville on the Course of the French Revolution, from The Old Regime and the Revolution, 1856

Voice 16.2 Hippolyte Taine on the Failure of the Early Years of the Revolution and the Rise of the Radical Revolution, from The French Revolution, 1881

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Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

16. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Claiming Rights

Source 16.1: The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

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Source 16.2: Representing the Declaration: Jean-Jacques Le Barbier: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Painting), ca. 1789

Quiz for Source 16.2 LaunchPad

Source 16.3: Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar: The Jamaica Letter, 1815

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Source 16.4: Rights and Slavery: Picturing "Reason and Nature": All Mortals Are Equal, It Is Not Birth but Virtue That Makes the Difference, 1793

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Source 16.5: Rights and Slavery: An African American Voice: Frederick Douglass: What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?, 1852

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Source 16.6: The Rights of Women: Depicting a Revolutionary Woman: Frenchwomen Freed, 1793

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Source 16.7: The Rights of Women: An American Feminist Voice: Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Solitude of Self, 1892

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Origins and Echoes of the American Revolution

Voice 16.1: Dorinda Outram on Enlightenment Ideas in the American Revolution, From The Enlightenment, 1995

Voice 16.2: Carl Guarneri on British Expansion Redirected, From America in the World: The United States in Global Context, 2007

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17. REVOLUTIONS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, 1750–1900

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Industrialization: The Global Context

The First Industrial Society

The British Aristocracy

The Middle Classes

The Laboring Classes

Social Protest

Europeans in Motion

Variations on a Theme: Industrialization in the United States and Russia

The United States: Industrialization without Socialism

Russia: Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century

After Independence in Latin America

Facing the World Economy

Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 17

CONTROVERSIES: Debating "Why Europe?"

Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad

ZOOMING IN: The English Luddites and Machine Breaking

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Socialist Vision

Source 17.1 Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848

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Source 17.2 Socialism in Song: Eugène Pottier, The Internationale, 1871

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Source 17.3 Socialist Perspectives in Art

Industrial Workers of the World, A Pyramid of Capitalist Society, 1911

Manifest of International Trade Union Congress, 1896

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Source 17.4 Socialist Variations: The Woman Question: Clara Zetkin, The German Socialist Women’s Movement, 1909

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Source 17.5 Socialist Variations: The Case of Russia: Lenin, What Is to Be Done? 1902

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Legacy of Karl Marx in the Twenty-First Century

Voice 17.1 Allan Todd on Marx and Current History, from The Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia, 2016

Voice 17.2 Terry Eagleton on the Continuing Relevance of Marx, from Why Marx Was Right, 2011

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17. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Experiencing the Early Industrial Revolution

Source 17.1: The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley, Factory Worker: Testimony, 1831; William Harter, Mill Owner: Testimony, 1832

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Source 17.2: Urban Living Conditions: Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1844

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Source 17.3: Another View of Factory Life: Eyre Crowe: Outside the Factory, 1874

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Source 17.4: A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860s

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Source 17.5: Poetry from the Factory Floor: Ellen Johnston: Poetry, 1867

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Source 17.6: Railroads and the Middle Class: The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era, 1870s

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Source 17.7: Inequality: John Leech, Capital and Labour, 1843

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Children and Family during the Industrial Revolution

Voice 17.1: Elinor Accampo on Migration, Industry, and the Loosening of Parental Control, From Industrialization, Family Life and Class Relations: Saint Chamond, 1815-1914, 1989

Voice 17.2: Louise Tilly and Joan Scott on Daughters and Industrial Work, From Women, Work, and Family, 1978

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18. COLONIAL ENCOUNTERS IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND OCEANIA, 1750–1950

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Industry and Empire

A Second Wave of European Conquests

Under European Rule

Cooperation and Rebellion

Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

Assessing Colonial Development

Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change

Education

Religion

"Race" and "Tribe"

Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 18

ZOOMING IN: Vivekananda, a Hindu Monk in America

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LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Colonial Conquest: The Scramble for Africa

Source 18.1 Competition and Conquest: Charles Tichon, Commandant Marchand across Africa, 1900

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Source 18.2 "Pacification" in East Africa: Richard Meinertzhagen, A Small Slaughter, 1902

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Source 18.3 From Cape to Cairo: The Rhodes Colossus, 1892

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Source 18.4 Ethiopia and the Scramble for Africa

Menelik II, Letter to the European Great Powers, 1891

Menelik II, Mobilization Proclamation, 1895

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Source 18.5 Empire Building in North Africa: British and French in North Africa, ca. 1910

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Source 18.6 An African American Voice on the Scramble for Africa: W. E. B. DuBois, The African Roots of War, 1915

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Invasion of Africa

Voice 18.1 Thomas Pakenham on European Motivations, from The Scramble for Africa, 1992

Voice 18.2 A. Adu Boahen on African Strategies, from African Perspectives on Colonialism, 1987

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18. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Colonial India: Experience and Response

Source 18.1: Images of Colonial Rule: J. Bouvier: A British Breakfast in India, 1842; Tiger Hunting in Colonial India, 1860s; The British and Indian Princes, ca. 1820; Blowing from a Gun, 1858

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Source 18.2: Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy: Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823

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Source 18.3: The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah: The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857

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Source 18.4: The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji: Speech to a London Audience, 1871

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Source 18.5: Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi: Indian Home Rule, 1909

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Great Indian Rebellion

Voice 18.1: Stanley Wolpert on British Innovations and Indian Grievances, From India, 1965

Voice 18.2: D. R. SarDesai on the Greased Cartridges Incident, From India: The Definitive History, 2008

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19. EMPIRES IN COLLISION: EUROPE, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND EAST ASIA, 1800–1900

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

The Crisis Within

Western Pressures

The Failure of Conservative Modernization

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

"The Sick Man of Europe"

Reform and Its Opponents

Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

The Tokugawa Background

American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

Modernization Japanese-Style

Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 19

ZOOMING IN: Lin Zexu: Confronting the Opium Trade

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: China: On the Brink of Change

Source 19.1 Toward a Constitutional Monarchy: Kang Youwei, An Appeal to Emperor Guangxu, 1898

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Source 19.2 Resistance to Change: Conservative Reactions after the Sino-Japanese War, late 19th/early 20th century

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Source 19.3 Gender, Reform, and Revolution: Qiu Jin, Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen, 1904

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Source 19.4 Cutting the Queue: The Modernization of China, 1911

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Source 19.5 Toward Revolution: Wang Jingwei, We Want a Republic, Not a Constitutional Monarchy, April 25, 1910

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Source 19.6 The Chinese Revolution of 1911: About the Insurrectional Movement in China, 1911

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895

Voice 19.1 David and Yurong Atwill on the Significance of the War for China, from Sources in Chinese History, 2010

Voice 19.2 James L. Huffman on the Significance of the War for Japan, from Japan in World History, 2010

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19. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Japan and the West in the Nineteenth Century

Source 19.1: Continuing Japanese Isolation: An Edict of Expulsion, 1825

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Source 19.2: The Debate: Expel the Barbarians: Tokugawa Nariaki: Memorial on the American Demand for a Treaty, 1853

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Source 19.3: The Debate: A Sumo Wrestler and a Foreigner: Yoshiku Utagawa: Throwing a Frenchman, 1861

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Source 19.4: The Debate: Eastern Ethics and Western Science: Sakuma Shozan: Reflections on My Errors, mid-1850s

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Source 19.5: Westernization: Toyohara Chikanobu: Women and Westernization, 1887

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Source 19.6: A Critique of Westernization: Honda Kinkichiro: Critique of Wholesale Westernization, 1879

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Source 19.7: War and Empire: Chomatsu Tomisato: Japan, Triumphant, 1904

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Source 19.8: Japan in the Early Twentieth Century: Okuma Shigenobu: Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907–1908

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Explaining Japan’s Transformation

Voice 19.1: James Huffman on Japan’s Historical Legacy and Its Meiji Leaders, From Japan in World History, 2010

Voice 19.2: James L. McClain on the International Context of Japan’s Transformation, From A Modern History of Japan, 2002

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PART 6 The Long Twentieth Century, 1900–present

THE BIG QUESTION The Long Twentieth Century: A New Period in World History?

LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (1900–present)

20. MILESTONES OF THE PAST CENTURY: WAR AND REVOLUTION, 1900–1950

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

The First World War: A European Crisis with a Global Impact, 1914–1918

Origins: The Beginnings of the Great War

Outcomes: Legacies of the Great War

The Russian Revolution and Soviet Communism

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression

Democracy Denied: The Authoritarian Alternative

European Fascism

Hitler and the Nazis

Japanese Authoritarianism

A Second World War, 1937–1945

The Road to War in Asia

The Road to War in Europe

Consequences: The Outcomes of a Second Global Conflict

Communist Consolidation and Expansion: The Chinese Revolution

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 20

ZOOMING IN: Hiroshima

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Ideologies of the Axis Powers

Source 20.1 Italian Fascism: Creating a New Roman Empire: School Exercise Book Celebrating Italy’s Victory over Ethiopia, 1937

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Source 20.2 Hitler on Nazism: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), 1925–1926

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Source 20.3 Nazi Anti-Semitism: H. Schluter, Der Ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew), 1937

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Source 20.4 The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of Japan, 1937

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Source 20.5 Japanese Imperialism: Japanese Propaganda Poster of Manchuria under Japanese Occupation, 1933

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Anti-Semitism

Voice 20.1 Beth A. Griech-Polelle on Anti-Semitism Creating "Otherness," from Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, 2017

Voice 20.2 Daniel Goldhagen on the Uniqueness of German Anti-Semitism, from Hitler’s Willing Executioners, 1997

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Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad

20. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Experiencing World War I

Source 20.1: Experiences on the Battlefront

Julian Grenfell: Letter from a British Officer in the Trenches, November 18, 1914

John Nash: Painting: Over the Top, 1918

Hugo Mueller: Letter from a German Soldier on the Western Front, 1915

Behari Lal: Letter from a Soldier in the British Indian Army, 1917

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Source 20.2: On the Home Front

British Propaganda Poster: Women of Britain Say –– "Go!," 1915

Ivor Novello: Keep the Home Fires Burning, 1915

Editha von Krell: Recollections of Four Months Working in a German Munitions Factory, 1917

Berlin Police Reports, 1915

Quiz for Source 20.2 LaunchPad

Source 20.3: In the Aftermath of the Great War

Otto Dix: Painting: Prague Street, 1920

Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929

Nar Diouf: A Senegalese Veteran’s Oral Testimony, 1919

Quiz for Source 20.3 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Legacies of World War I

Voice 20.1: John Keegan on the Legacies of World War I, From The First World War, 2000

Voice 20.2: Peter Frankopan on World War I and the Decline of Empire, From The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, 2015

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21. MILESTONES OF THE PAST CENTURY: A CHANGING GLOBAL LANDSCAPE, 1950–PRESENT

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Recovering from the War

Communism Chinese-Style

Building a Modern Society

Eliminating Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War

Military Conflict and the Cold War

Nuclear Standoff and Third-World Rivalry

The Cold War and the Superpowers

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence

The End of Empire in World History

Toward Independence in Asia and Africa

After Freedom

The End of the Communist Era

Beyond Mao in China

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

After Communism

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 21

ZOOMING IN: The Cuban Revolution

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Mao’s China

Source 21.1 Revolution in Long Bow Village: William Hinton, Confronting Landlords and Husbands, 1948

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Source 21.2 A Vision of the New China: Poster "Work Hard for a New Age," 1970s

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Source 21.3 Socialism in the Countryside

Mao Zedong, On Communes, 1958

Socialism in the Countryside: Poster "The People’s Communes Are Good," 1958

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Source 21.4 Women, Nature, and Industrialization: Poster "Women Hold Up Half of Heaven," 1970

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Source 21.5 The Cult of Mao: Poster "Chairman Mao and Us Together," 1968

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Source 21.6 Experiencing the Cultural Revolution: Gao Yuan, Born Red, 1987

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing Mao

Voice 21.1 Maurice Meisner on Mao, Modernization, and Socialism, from Mao’s China and After, 1999

Voice 21.2 Frank Dikotter on Mao’s Great Famine, from Mao’s Great Famine, 2011

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21. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Articulating Independence

Source 21.1: Declaring Vietnam’s Independence: Ho Chi Minh: Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945

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Source 21.2: An Image of Vietnam’s Independence: Fifty Years Later: Fiftieth Anniversary of Vietnamese Independence, 1995

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Source 21.3: India’s "Tryst with Destiny": Jawaharlal Nehru: Independence Day Speech, August 14, 1947

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Source 21.4: Another View of India’s Struggle for Independence: Gandhi and the Fight against British Colonialism, 1930-1931

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Source 21.5: One Africa: Kwame Nkrumah: Africa Must Unite, 1963

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Source 21.6: South African "Independence": Photograph of the First Post-Apartheid South African Election, 1994

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Source 21.7: Independence as Threat: Alvim Pereira: Ten Principles, 1961

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing African Independence

Voice 21.1: Basil Davidson on the Promise of Independence, From Let Freedom Come, 1978

Voice 21.2: George Ayittey on the Betrayal of Independence, From Africa Betrayed, 1992

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22. GLOBAL PROCESSES: TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMY, AND SOCIETY, 1900–PRESENT

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

Technology: The Acceleration of Innovation

Generating Energy: Fossil Fuel Breakthroughs

Harnessing Energy: Transportation Breakthroughs

Harnessing Energy: Communication and Information Breakthroughs

Harnessing Energy: Military Breakthroughs

The Global Economy: The Acceleration of Entanglement

The Globalization of Industrialization: Development in the Global South

Re-globalization: Deepening Economic Connections

Growth, Instability, and Inequality

Pushback: Resistance to Economic Globalization

Producing and Consuming: The Shapes of Modern Societies

Life on the Land: The Decline of the Peasantry

The Changing Lives of Industrial Workers

The Service Sector and the Informal Economy

Global Middle Classes and Life at the Top

Getting Personal: Transformations of Private Life

Modernity and Personal Life

The State and Personal Life

Feminism and Personal Life

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 22

CONTROVERSIES: Debating Globalization

Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad

ZOOMING IN: Anna Dubova, a Russian Woman, and the Soviet State

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Global Feminism

Source 22.1 Western Feminism in the Twenty-First Century

A Slutwalk Protest in London, 2012

A Demonstration for Women Workers’ Rights in Toulouse, France, 2017

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Source 22.2 Black American Feminism: Combahee River Collective, A Black Feminist Statement, 1977

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Source 22.3 Communist Feminism: Soviet Poster Advertising Support for Women Workers, 1949

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Source 22.4 Islamic Feminism: Benazir Bhutto, Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1995

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Source 22.5 Mexican Zapatista Feminists

Indigenous Women’s Petition, March 1, 1994

The Women’s Revolutionary Law, January 1, 1994

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Feminism: Tensions and Resistance

Voice 22.1 Merry Wiesner-Hanks on International Feminism, from Gender in History: Global Perspectives, 2011

Voice 22.2 Peter Stearns on Resistance to Global Feminism, from Gender in World History, 2015

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22. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Reflections on Technology

Source 22.1: Postcards of the Future: A French Artist Imagines Technological Change: Air Battles and Air Freight in the Future, 1910; The Horse as a Curiosity, 1910; The School of the Future, 1910; A Video-Telephone in the Year 2000, 1910

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Source 22.2: Depicting Communist Technology: Soviet Industry and Technology, 1933

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Source 22.3: Nehru and Gandhi on Technology and Industry: Nehru, The Discovery of India, 1946

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Source 22.4: "Technology with a Human Face": E. F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful, 1973

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Source 22.5: Nuclear Technology and Fears of a Nuclear Holocaust

"The Climatic Effects of Nuclear War," 1984

Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth, 1982

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Source 22.6: Technology and Climate Change

Piers Forster, Reversing Climate Change… Technologically, 2014

Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Facing Climate Change, 2016

José Ramos-Horta and Mohamed Nasheed: "Climate Change a Western Problem: Not Anymore," 2014

Quiz for Source 22.6 LaunchPad

HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Technological Change in the Twentieth Century

Voice 22.1: Trevor Williams on the Impacts of Technology in the First Half of the Twentieth Century, From A Short History of Twentieth-Century Technology c. 1900-c. 1950, 1982

Voice 22.2: J.R. McNeill on Challenges Overcome and Challenges Created in the Twentieth Century, From Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World, 2000

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23. GLOBAL PROCESSES: DEMOGRAPHY, CULTURE, AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 1900–PRESENT

Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad

More People: Quadrupling Human Numbers

People in Motion: Patterns of Migration

To the Cities: Global Urbanization

Moving Abroad: Long-Distance Migration

Microbes in Motion: Disease and Recent History

Cultural Identity in an Entangled World

Race, Nation, and Ethnicity

Popular Culture on the Move

Religion and Global Modernity

Humankind and the Environment: Entering the Anthropocene Era

The Global Environment Transformed

Changing the Climate

Protecting the Planet: The Rise of Environmentalism

Reflections: World History and the Making of Meaning

Second Thoughts

What’s the Significance?

Big Picture Questions

Next Steps: For Further Study

Landmarks for Chapter 23

ZOOMING IN: Barbie and Her Competitors in the Muslim World

Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad

LearningCurve LaunchPad

Summative Quiz LaunchPad

WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Contending for Islam

Source 23.1 A Secular State for an Islamic Society: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the Republican Party, 1927

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Source 23.2 Toward an Islamic Society: The Muslim Brotherhood, Toward the Light, 1936

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Source 23.3 Two Images of Islamic Radicalism

The Violent Face of Islamic Radicalism, 2015

The Peaceful Face of Islamic Radicalism, 2015

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Source 23.4 The Sufi Alternative: Narendra Modi, Sufism and Islamic Radicalism, 2016

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Source 23.5 Progressive Islam: Kabir Helminski, Islam and Human Values, 2009

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Source 23.6 Debating the Burqa: Protests in London against French Ban of Face Concealment, 2011

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Perspectives on the Iranian Revolution

Voice 23.1 Francis Robinson on Islamic Renewal Movements, from The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, 1996

Voice 23.2 John Esposito on the Source of the Iranian Revolution, from The Oxford History of Islam, 1999

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23. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Experiencing International Migration

Source 23.1: Hana in Holland: Hana, Adapting to Holland, 2016

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Source 23.2: Ayaan Hirsi Ali in Holland: Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "From a Letter to My Grandmother," 2010

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Source 23.3: Left Behind in Morocco: Poem by a Moroccan Woman, 1978

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Source 23.4: Brain Drain: J. Nozipo Maraire, Zenzele: A Letter for My Daughter, 1996

Quiz for Source 23.4 LaunchPad

Source 23.5: The Politics of Immigration: A Cautious Welcome in Europe: Chancellor Angela Merkel, Speech to the European Parliament, October 7, 2015

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Source 23.6: The Politics of Immigration: Resentment and Resistance in Europe: Geert Wilders, Speech at the 'Europe of Nations and Freedom' Conference, 2017

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Source 23.7: From the Holocaust to Israel: Fund-Raising POster from Israel, 1950

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Source 23.8: The Palestinian Diaspora: "The Catastrophe" Memorialized, 2015

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HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Immigration to the United States and Europe

Voice 23.1: Konrad Jarausch on Europe’s Shift from Emigration to Immigration, From Out of Ashes: A New History of Europe in the Twentieth Century, 2015

Voice 23.2: Tobias Brinkmann and Annemarie Sammartino on American and German Attitudes towards Immigration, From The United States and Germany during the Twentieth Century: Competition and Convergence, 2010

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