Third Edition   ©2016

Media Essentials

A Brief Introduction

Richard Campbell (Miami University of Ohio) , Christopher R. Martin (University of Northern Iowa) , Bettina Fabos (University of Northern Iowa)

  • ISBN-10: 1-4576-9376-3; ISBN-13: 978-1-4576-9376-2; Format: Paper Text, 558 pages

Chapter 1: Mass Communication: A Critical Approach

The Evolution of Mass Communication
The Oral and Written Eras
The Print Era
The Electronic and Digital Eras
Media Convergence
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Comcast Extends Its Reach
Mass Media and the Process of Communication
The Evolution of a New Mass Medium
Debating Media’s Role in Everyday Life
LaunchPad: Agenda Setting and Gatekeeping
Media Literacy: Ways of Understanding
The Linear Model
The Cultural Model
The Social Scientific Model
A Closer Look at the Cultural Model: Surveying the Cultural Landscape
The “Culture as Skyscraper” Metaphor
The “Culture as Map” Metaphor
Tracing Changes in Values
A Closer Look at the Social Scientific Model: Gathering Data
Comparing Analyses of Cancer News Coverage
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Critiquing Media
Evaluating Cultural and Social Scientific Research
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Football, Fútbol, and Soccer
LaunchPad: The Simpsons on Soccer
Conducting Our Own Critiques
The Critical Process Behind Media Literacy
Benefits of a Critical Perspective

Chapter 2: Books and the Power of Print
The Early History of Books: From Papyrus to Paperbacks
Papyrus, Parchment, and Codex: The Development Stage of Books
Writing and Printing Innovations: Books Enter the Entrepreneurial Stage
Manuscript Culture
The Printing Press and the Publishing Industry: Books Become a Mass Medium
The Evolution of Modern Publishing
Early Publishing Houses
The Conglomerates
The Structure of Publishing Houses
Types of Books: Tradition Meets Technology
Print Books
Electronic and Digital Publishing
LaunchPad: Books in the New Millennium
The Economics of the Book Industry
Money In
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Self-Publishing, Redefined
LaunchPad: 50 Shades of Grey
LaunchPad: Based On: Making Books into Movies
Money Out
Books in a Democratic Society
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Banned Books and "Family Values"
LaunchPad: Huck Finn on Film
Books and Community
Physical Deterioration

Chapter 3: Newspapers to Digital Frontiers: Journalism’s Journey
The Early History of American Journalism
Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press
The Penny Press: Becoming a Mass Medium
Yellow Journalism
The Evolution of Journalism: Competing Models and the Rise of Professionalism
“Objectivity” and Professionalization in Modern Journalism
Interpretive Journalism
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: From Uncovering Scandals to Becoming One
LaunchPad: Journalism on Film
Journalism Evolves across Media
Journalism on the Airwaves
Internet Accelerates Changes to Journalism
The Culture of News and Rituals of Reporting
What Is News?
Values in American Journalism
When Values Collide: Ethics and the News Media
The Economics of Journalism in the 21st Century
Money In
Money Out
Consolidation and a Crash
LaunchPad: Newspapers and the Internet: Convergence
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: News Aggregation
LaunchPad: Ariana Huffington Speaks
Changes and Challenges for Journalism in the Information Age
Social Media
The Echo Chamber
Citizen Journalism
Fake News and Satiric Journalism
Journalism in a Democratic Society
Social Responsibility
The Troubled Future of Journalism and Journalism's First Home

Chapter 4: Magazines in the Age of Specialization
The Early History of Magazines
The First Magazines: European Origins
Magazines in Eighteenth-Century America: The Voices of a Revolution
Magazines in Nineteenth-Century America: Specialization and General Interest
Going National as the Twentieth Century Approaches
The Evolution of Modern American Magazines
Distribution and Production Costs Plummet
Muckrakers Expose Social Ills
General-Interest Magazines Hit Their Stride
General-Interest Magazines Decline
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: The Evolution of Photojournalism
LaunchPad: Photojournalism Primer
Types of Magazines: Domination of Specialization
LaunchPad: Magazine Specialization Today
Men's and Women's Magazines
Entertainment, Leisure, and Sports Magazines
Age-Specific Magazines
Minority Magazines
Trade Magazines
Alternative Magazines
Supermarket Tabloids
Online Magazines
LaunchPad: Narrowcasting in Magazines
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: The Digital Pass-Along: Magazine Readers on Social Media
LaunchPad: Magazines on Film
The Economics of Magazines
Money In
Money Out
Major Magazine Chains
Magazines in a Democratic Society

Chapter 5: Sound Recording and Popular Music
The Early History and Evolution of Sound Recording
From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium
From Records to Tapes to CDs: Analog Goes Digital
From CDs to MP3s: Sound Recording in the Internet Age
LaunchPad: Recording Music Today
Records and Radio: A Rocky Relationship
U.S. Popular Music and the Rise of Rock
The Rise of Pop Music
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: The Rise of Digital Music
LaunchPad: Streaming Music Videos
Rock and Roll Arrives
Rock Blurs Additional Boundaries
The Evolution of Pop Music
The British Are Coming!
Motown: The Home of Soul
Folk and Psychedelic: Protest and Drugs
Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Rock: New Genres on the Horizon
Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines
The Country Road
The Economics of Sound Recording
CONVERGING MEDIA: 360 Degrees of Music
LaunchPad: Katy Perry on Tour
A Shifting Power Structure
Making and Spending Money
LaunchPad: Streaming Music Videos
Sound Recording in a Democratic Society

Chapter 6: Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting
The Early History of Radio
Inventors Paving the Way: Morse, Maxwell, and Hertz
Innovators in Wireless: Marconi, Fessenden, and De Forest
Early Regulation of Wireless/Radio
The Networks
The Radio Act of 1927
The Golden Age of Radio
The Evolution of Radio
Transistors: Making Radio Portable
The FM Revolution
The Rise of Format Radio
Once radio became portable and FM was introduced, music began to dominate the medium
The Characteristics of Contemporary Radio
Format Specialization
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Host: The Origins of Talk Radio
LaunchPad: Talk Radio on TV
LaunchPad: Going Visual: Video, Radio, and the Web
Nonprofit Radio and NPR
Radio and Convergence
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Streaming Music
LaunchPad: Access to Music
The Economics of Commercial Radio
Money In and Money Out
As in any other enterprise, money flows both into and out of radio. Commercial stations take
LaunchPad: Radio: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
Manipulating Playlists with Payola
Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation
Radio in a Democratic Society

Chapter 7: Movies and the Impact of Images
The Early History of Movies
Advances in Film Technology
Telling Stories: The Introduction of Narrative
The Arrival of Nickelodeons
The Evolution of the Hollywood Studio System
Edison’s Attempt to Control the Industry
A Closer Look at the Three Pillars
Hollywood’s Golden Age: The Development of Style
Narrative Techniques in the Silent Era
Augmenting Images with Sound
Inside the Hollywood System: Setting the Standard for Narrative Style
LaunchPad: Storytelling in Gravity
LaunchPad: Breaking Barriers with 12 Years a Slave
Outside the Hollywood System: Providing Alternatives
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Breaking through Hollywood's Race Barrier
LaunchPad: Tyler Perry's Revolution
The Transformation of the Hollywood Studio System
The Paramount Decision
Flight to the Suburbs
Home Entertainment
The Economics of the Movie Business
Money In
Money Out
Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Digital Turn
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Movie Theaters and Live Exhibition
LaunchPad: The Theatrical Experience
The Movies in a Democratic Society
LaunchPad: More than a Movie: Social Issues and Film

Chapter 8: Television, Cable, and Specialization in Visual Culture
The Early History of Television
Becoming a Mass Medium
Controlling TV Content
Staining Television's Reputation
Introducing Cable
The Evolution of Network Programming
Information: Network News
Entertainment: Comedy
Entertainment: Drama
LaunchPad: Television Drama: Then and Now
Talk Shows and TV Newsmagazines
Reality Television
Public Television
The Evolution of Cable Programming
Basic Cable
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: The United Segments of America: Niche Marketing in Cable
LaunchPad: Teen Wolf
Premium Cable
Regulatory Challenges Facing Television and Cable
Restricting Broadcast Networks' Control
Reining in Cable's Growth – For a While
Television in the Digital Age
Home Video and Recording
The Internet, Smartphones, and Mobile Video
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Shifting, Bingeing, and Saturday Mornings
The Economics of Television and Cable
Money In
Money Out
Ownership and Consolidation
Television in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

Chapter 9: The Internet and New Technologies: The Media Converge
The Early History of the Internet
Military Functions, Civic Roots
The Net Widens
The Evolution of the Internet: From Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 and Beyond
Web 1.0
Web 2.0
Types of Social Media
LaunchPad: The Internet in 1995
Web 3.0: The Semantic Web
The Economics of the Internet
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Net Neutrality
LaunchPad: Net Neutrality
Internet Businesses
Money In and Money Out
The Noncommercial Web
Security and Appropriateness on the Internet
Information Security; What's Private?
Personal Safety; Online Predators
Appropriateness: What Should Be Online?
The Internet in a Democratic Society
Access: Closing the Digital Divide
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Activism, Hacktivism, and Anonymous
LaunchPad: Hacktivism
Ownership and Customization
LaunchPad: The Rise of Social Media
Chapter Essentials

Chapter 10: Electronic Gaming and the Media Playground
The Early History of Electronic Gaming
Mechanical Gaming
The First Video Games
The Evolution of Electronic Gaming
Arcades and Classic Games         
Consoles and Advancing Graphics         
Computers and Related Gaming Formats
The Internet and Social Gaming
Consoles, Portables, and Entertainment Centers
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Anita Sarkeesian, #GamerGate, and Convergence
LaunchPad: Anita Sarkeesian on Video Game Tropes
The Media Playground
Communities of Play: Inside the Game
Communities of Play: Outside the Game
Immersion and Addiction
The Economics of Electronic Gaming
Money In
Money Out
LaunchPad: Video Games at the Movies
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Writing about Games
LaunchPad: New Games Journalism
Digital Gaming in a Democratic Society
Free Speech and Video Games      
Alternate Voices
Chapter Essentials


Chapter 11: Advertising and Commercial Culture    
Early History of American Advertising: 1850s to 1950s
The First Advertising Agencies        
Retail Stores: Giving Birth to Branding      
Patent Medicines: Making Outrageous Claims     
Department Stores: Fueling a Consumer Culture     
Transforming American Society        
Early Regulation of Advertising
The Evolution of U.S. Advertising: 1950s to Today
Visual Design Comes to the Fore         
New Breeds of Advertising Agencies Are Born     
Ad Agencies Develop a Distinctive Structure
The Internet Alters the Ad Landscape
LaunchPad: Advertising in the Digital Age     
Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising
Using Conventional Persuasive Strategies      
Associating Products with Values       
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Idiots and Objects: Stereotyping in Advertising
LaunchPad: Parodying Ad Stereotypes
Telling Stories       
Placing Products in Media         
Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising
Targeting Children and Teens        
LaunchPad: Advertising and Effects on Children
Triggering Anorexia and Overeating       
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Marketing, Social Media, and Epic Fails
LaunchPad: Reactions to Ads
Promoting Smoking
Promoting Drinking          
Hawking Drugs Directly to Consumers      
Monitoring the Advertising Industry
Advertising in a Democratic Society  
Chapter Essentials

Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing the Message    
Early History of Public Relations
Age of the Press Agent: P. T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill    
Business Adopts Press Agent Methods     
Professional Public Relations Emerges
The Evolution of Public Relations
PR Agencies and In-House PR Services
A Closer Look at Public Relations Functions 
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Military PR in the Digital Age
LaunchPad: Military PR
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: Improving the Credibility Gap
LaunchPad: John Oliver on the Gap
Tensions Between Public Relations and the Press
LaunchPad: Give and Take: Public Relations and Journalism
Elements of Interdependence         
Journalists' Skepticism About PR Practices      
Shaping PR's Image          
Public Relations in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

Chapter 13: Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression
The Origins of Free Expression and Free Press
A Closer Look at the First Amendment     
Interpretations of “Free Expression”      
The Evolution of Censorship       
Unprotected Forms of Expression    
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: A False Wikipedia "Biography" 
LaunchPad: Wikipedia
First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment     
LaunchPad: Bloggers and Legal Rights
The First Amendment Beyond the Printed Page: Broadcasting, and the Internet
Citizens and Lawmakers Control the Movies
The Movie Industry Regulates Itself
Two Pivotal Court Cases       
Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines    
Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity    
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Bullying Converges Online
LaunchPad: Online Bullying
Fair Coverage of Controversial Issues     
Communication Policy and the Internet
The First Amendment in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

Chapter 14: Media Economics and the Global Marketplace
The Transition to an Information Economy
How Media Industries Are Structured
Deregulation Trumps Regulation
The Rise of Media Powerhouses
LaunchPad: The Impact of Media Ownership
Analyzing the Media Economy
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Shifting Economics
How Media Companies Operate
How the Internet Is Changing the Game
Business Trends in Media Industries
The Age of Hegemony
Specialization and Global Markets
The Rise of Specialization and Synergy
Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate
The Growth of Global Audiences      
Social Issues in Media Economics
The Limits of Antitrust Laws
A Vast Silence   
Cultural Imperialism       
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: From Fifty to a Few: The Most Dominant Media Corporations
LaunchPad: Frozen: Disney's Worldwide Smash
Media Marketplace in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials

Chapter 15: Social Scientific and Cultural Approaches to Media Research  
Early Media Research Methods
Propaganda Analysis       
Public-Opinion Research       
Social-Psychology Studies     
MEDIA LITERACY Case Study: The Effects of Television in a Post-TV World
LaunchPad: 2 Broke Girls  
Marketing Research
Social Scientific Research
Early Theories of Media Effects      
Conducting Social Scientific Media Research
Contemporary Media-Effects Theories
LaunchPad: Media Effects Research
Evaluating Social Scientific Research     
Cultural Approaches to Media Research
Early Developments in Cultural Studies Media Research  
Contemporary Cultural Studies Approaches    
Evaluating Cultural Studies Research     
CONVERGING MEDIA Case Study: Converging Methods for Studying Mass Media: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods
LaunchPad: Mixed Methods
Media Research in a Democratic Society
Chapter Essentials