Fourth Edition   ©2017

Speak Up!

An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking

Douglas M. Fraleigh (California State University, Fresno) , Joseph S. Tuman (San Francisco State University)

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-03065-3; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-03065-0; Format: Paper Text, 768 pages

Brief Contents 
Preface 
THE BASICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
 1         INTRODUCING PUBLIC SPEAKING 
 
            What Is Public Speaking? 
            Why Study Public Speaking?  
                Using Public Speaking as a Student 
                             [Insert Video Icon] Video 1.1: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”
                Using Public Speaking in Your Career 
                Using Public Speaking in Your Community 
            Public Speaking: A Great Tradition  
            Public Speaking: A Dynamic Discipline  
                From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process 
                New Technologies, New Channels
                Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
                           Video 1.2: “Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
                Emphasis on Critical Thinking 
                A Focus on Free and Ethical Communication 
            Chapter Review 

 2         DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH 
             Why Prepare? 
             The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation 
              Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech 
                    Analyze Your Audience 
                    Select Your Topic 
                    Determine Your Speech’s Rhetorical Purpose 
                    Create a Thesis Statement 
                    Determine Your Main Points 
                               Video 2.1: “Previews, Transitions, and Summaries”
                    Develop Supporting Materials 
                    Organize and Outline the Body of Your Speech 
                    Outline Your Introduction and Conclusion 
                                 Key Term: Introduction
                                 Key Term: Conclusion
                    Incorporate Transitions 
                                  Key Term: Transition
                    Consider Your Word Choice 
                    Consider Presentation Aids 
                    Practice Your Speech 
                                 Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery
                                Video 2.2: “Lui, Preventing Cyberbullying”
                    Deliver Your Speech 
                                 Video 2.3: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
               Overcoming Speech Anxiety 
                    Prepare Early and Follow a Plan 
                    Take Care of Yourself 
                    Visualize Success 
                    Use Relaxation Techniques 
                    Volunteer to Speak First
                    Never Defeat Yourself
              Chapter Review
                                 Video 2.4: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”

 3     SPEECH ETHICS 
              Codes of Ethics: Absolute, Situational, and Culturally Relative 

              Legal Speech vs. Ethical Speech 
              Communicating Truthfully 
                    Lying 
                    Half-Truths 
                    False Inference 
              Acknowledging the Work of Others 
                               Video 3.1: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
             Quoting from a Source 
                               Video 3.2: “Citing Someone Else’s Idea”
              Paraphrasing the Work of Others 
                               Key Term: Paraphrasing
              Common Knowledge 
              Using Sound Reasoning 
         Being an Ethical Listener 
               Show Courtesy 
               Demonstrate an Open Mind 
               Hold the Speaker Accountable 
         Chapter Review 

4       LISTENING SKILLS 
         The Listening Process 
               Listening vs. Hearing
               Processing What You’ve Heard 
               Retaining What You’ve Processed 
               Listening Styles
         The Culprits Behind Poor Listening 
               Unprocessed Note Taking 
               Nonlistening 
               Interruptive Listening 
               Agenda-Driven Listening 
               Argumentative Listening 
               Nervous Listening 
         Becoming a Better Listener 
               Filter Out Distractions 
               Focus on the Speaker 
               Show That You Are Listening 
         Maximizing Your Audience’s Listening 
               Anticipate Ineffective Listening Before Your Speech 
               Encourage Active Listening during Your Speech 
         Listening When You Are in the Audience 
         Chapter Review 

5       AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 
         Understanding Situational Characteristics 
               Size
               Time
               Location
               Mobility
         Incorporating Demographics
              Key Term Video: Demographics
                Age 
                          Video 5.1: “Poplin, The Importance of Community Service and Civic Engagement”
                Gender Composition
                       Video 5.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has 
Grown over Time”
                Sexual Orientation
                Race and Ethnicity 
                Religious Orientation 
                Socioeconomic Background 
                Political Affiliation
                Putting the Demographic Pieces Together
           Seeking Common Ground 
                      Video 5.3: “Churchill, St. James Palace Speech”
           Identifying Prior Exposure
           Identifying Audience Disposition 
           Gathering Information About Your Audience
                Surveying Your Audience
                Interviewing Your Audience
                Considering and Observing Your Audience
           Situational Audience Analysis
           Chapter Review
6         SELECTING YOUR TOPIC
           Developing a Set of Potential Topics
                Research
                Brainstorming
                Word Association
                Mind Mapping
           Selecting the Best Topic
                Consider the Assignment
                Consider Your Audience
                Consider Your Knowledge and Interests
                        Video 6.1 “Moise, Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
                Consider the Speech Context
                Choose a Topic and Stick with It 
          Refining Your Topic 
                Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose
                         Video 6.2: “Overused Topic (Needs Improvement)”
          Drafting Your Specific Purpose
          Drafting Your Thesis Statement
                         Key Term: Thesis Statement
                        Video 6.3: “Thesis Statement” and “Thesis Statement: Needs Focus (Needs Improvement)”
          Chapter Review
                          [Insert Video Icon] Video 6.4: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”

7        RESEARCHING YOUR SPEECH 
          Research is Essential
                         Video 7.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
          Research Works Best When You Have a Plan 
                Inventory Your Research Needs 
                Find the Sources You Need
                Keep Track of Your Sources
                          Key Term Video: Citation
          Evaluating a Source’s Credibility 
                Expertise
                Objectivity 
                Observational Capacity
                Recency
                          Video 7.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
          Conducting Library Research 
                Books 
                Periodicals
                Newspaper
                Reference Works
                Government Documents
          Using the Internet
                Benefits of Internet Research 
                Disadvantages of Internet Research
                Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources
                Credibility of Social Media
                Searching the World Wide Web
          Interviewing Sources
                Prepare for Your Interview
                Set Up Your Interview
                Plan Your Interview Questions
                Conduct the Interview
                Evaluate Your Notes
          Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches
                Clearly Cite Your Source
                Present the Information Accurately
                               Key Term Video: Paraphrase
                               Video 7.3: “Citing Sources (Statistics)”
          Chapter Review 

8        USING SUPPORTING MATERIALS FOR YOUR SPEECH
                               Key Term: Supporting Materials
          Why Use Supporting Materials
                 Building Audience Interest
                 Enhancing Audience Understanding
                 Strengthening Audience Memory
                 Winning Audience Agreement
                 Evoking Audience Emotion
         Types of Supporting Materials
                 Examples
                               Key Term: Example
                 Definitions
                 Testimony
                               Key Term: Testimony
                               Video 8.1: “Royzpal, Litter”
                 Statistics
                               Key Term: Statistic
                             Video 8.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Facts)”
                 Narratives
                               Key Term: Narrative
                 Analogies
                               Key Term: Analogy
         Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials 
                Choose the Most Credible Proof
                Use a Variety of Supporting Materials
                Appeal to Different Learning Styles
                Avoid Long Lists
                Consider Your Audience
                               Video 8.3: “Examples (Humorous)”
                Respect the Available Time
         Chapter Review

 9      ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH
         Selecting Your Main Points
               Consider Your Purpose
               Take Your Audience into Account
               Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points
         Organizing Your Supporting Materials
               Subordination and Coordination
                             Video 9.1: “Without Liberty and Justice For All”
               When a Subpoint Doesn’t Fit
         Arranging Your Main Points 
               Spatial Pattern
                             Key Term: Spatial Pattern
               Chronological (Temporal) Pattern
                               Key Term: Chronological (Temporal) Pattern
               Causal Pattern
                              Key Term: Causal Pattern
               Comparison Pattern
               Categorical Pattern
                              [Insert Video Icon] Key Term: Categorical (Topical) Pattern
                              [Insert Video Icon] Video 9.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown Over Time”
               Persuasive Speech Patterns
          Using Organizing Words and Sentences
               Transitions
                             Key Term: Transition
                             Video 9.3: “Patterns of Arrangement: Causal”
               Signposts
               Internal Previews and Internal Summaries
         Chapter Review
10     INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
         Introducing Your Speech
               Gain Your Audience’s Attention
                              Key Term: Attention-Getter
                             Key Term: Rhetorical Questions
                            Video 10.1: “Anecdote (Personal) in an Informative Introduction”
               Signal Your Thesis
               Show Your Audience What’s in It for Them
               Establish Your Credibility
               Preview Your Main Points
                          Key Term: Preview
                          Video 10.2: “Attention-Getter, Support, Creative Preview”
         Concluding Your Speech
               Transition to Your Conclusion
               Summarize Your Main Points
               Finish with a Memorable Clincher
                             Key Term: Clincher
                             Video 10.3: “Clincher: Evokes Response”
         Chapter Review
11     OUTLINING YOUR SPEECH
         Two Stages of Outlining
               The Working Outline
               The Speaking Outline
                          Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery
         Creating Your Working Outline
               Outlining the Body of Your Speech
                           Key Term: Transition
                            Video 11.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
               Outlining Your Introduction
                          Key Term: Introduction
               Outlining Your Conclusion
                            Key Term:  Conclusion
                            Video 11.2: “Without Liberty and Justice for All”
               Creating a List of Works Cited
               Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis
                            Video 11.3: “Rate: Too Fast (Needs Improvement)”
         A Sample Working Outline
         Creating Your Speaking Outline
               Formatting Your Speaking Outline
               Elements of Your Speaking Outline
         A Sample Speaking Outline
         Chapter Review
             Video 11.4

12      LANGUAGE AND STYLE
          The Importance of Language and Word Choice
          Differences between Oral and Written Language
          Denotative and Connotative Meaning
               Denotative Meaning
               Connotative Meaning
          Presenting Your Message Clearly
               Understandable Language
               Concrete Words
               Proper Use of Words
               Concise Language
          Express Your Ideas Effectively
               Repetition
               Hypothetical Examples
               Personal Anecdotes
               Vivid Language
                         Video 12.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
               Figurative Language
                             Key Term:  Figurative Language
                            Key Term:  Antithesis
                            Key Term:  Simile
                           Key Term:  Metaphor
                           Video 12.2: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports  Chatrooms”
                           Video 12.3: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”
          Choosing Respectful and Unbiased Language
               Avoid Stereotypes
               Use Gender-Neutral References
               Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups
               Steer Clear of Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality
               A Note of Appropriate Language and Political Correctness
          Chapter Review

13      DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH
                              Key Term:  Delivery
          Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery
               Reading from a Manuscript
               Memorizing from a Manuscript
               Speaking from an Outline
               Impromptu Speaking
                            Key Term:  Impromptu Delivery
          Using Verbal Delivery Skills
               Volume
                              Key Term:  Volume
               Tone
               Rate of Delivery
                             Key Term:  Rate of Delivery
                             Video 13.1: “Rate Too Fast (Needs Improvement)”
               Projection
               Articulation
               Pronunciation
                              Key Term:  Pronunciation
               Pausing
                             Key Term:  Verbal Filler
          Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills
               Eye Contact
                              Key Term:  Eye Contact
               Gestures
                             Key Term:  Gesture
                             Video 13.2: “Gestures: Overly Scripted (Needs Improvement)”
               Physical Movement
                            Key Term:  Physical Movement
               Proxemics
               Personal Appearance
                      Key Term:  Personal Appearance
           Chapter Review

14       USING PRESENTATION AIDS
           Why Use Presentation Aids?
               Presentation Aids Can Make Your Speech More Interesting
               Presentation Aids Can Simplify a Complex Topic
               Presentation Aids Can Help Your Audience Remember Your Speech
           Types of Presentation Aids
               The Speaker
               Assistants
               Object
               Visual Images
               Graphs
               Text-Based Visuals
               Audio and Video
           Using Technology Wisely
                Using Presentation Software
                             Key Term:  Presentation Software
                Using Other Technology
           Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids
                Consider the Forum
                Consider Your Audience
                Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points
                Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear
                Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids
                    Video 14.1: “Presentation Software: Checking Beforehand (Needs Improvement)”
           Using Presentation Aids During Your Speech
                Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids
                Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids
                Maintain Eye Contact
                              Video 14.2: “Presentation Software (Needs Improvement)”
                Remember the Purpose of Your Aids
            Chapter Review

15        MEDIATED PUBLIC SPEAKING
            The Rise of Mediated Communication
                The Expansion of Mediated Public Speaking
                Prerecorded and Real-Time Presentations
            Advantages of Mediated Presentations
                General Advantages
                Advantages of Prerecorded Speeches
                Advantages of Real-Time Technologies
                        Video 15.1: “Reagan, Moscow State University Address”
            Challenges of Mediated Presentations
                Loss of Naturalness
                Loss of Immediacy
                Decreased Nonverbal Communication
                Diminished Feedback
                Difficulty Managing Distractions
                Technological Difficulties
            Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations
                Delivery Considerations
                Message Adaptations
                Practice Delivering and Recording
            Recording Your Classroom Speech
                Camera
                Setting and Background
                Attire
                Camera Positioning
                                  Video 15.3: “Fallacy: Red Herring (Needs Improvement)”
            Special Considerations of for Real-Time Presentations
                Practice with Your Equipment to Make Sure It Works
                Select a Robust Internet Connection
                Use Group Chat/Video and Screen Sharing
                Create Opportunities for Audience Interaction
                Solicit Feedback through an Alternative Medium
            Chapter Review

16        INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
            Techniques for Informing
                Definition
                                   Key Term:  Definition
                Explanation
                                    Key Term:  Explanation
                Description
                                    Key Term:  Description
                Demonstration
                                     Key Term:  Demonstration
                                     Video 16.1: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”
                Narrative
                                     Key Term:  Narrative
                                     Video 16.2: “Conveying Information: Narrative (Needs Improvement)”
            Types of Informative Speeches
                Objects
                Individuals or Groups
                Events
                Processes
                          Video 16.3: “Conveying Information: Description”
                Ideas
            Developing Your Informative Speech
                Analyzing Your Audience
                Selecting a Technique
                                        Key Term:  Demographics
                Focusing on Your Goal to Inform
            Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message
            Sample Informative Speech
            Chapter Review

17        PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
            The Nature of a Persuasive Speech
                 Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members
                 Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims
                                           Key Term:  Fact Claim
                                             Key Term:  Policy Claim
                                           Video 17.1
            The Nature of Persuasion
                 Two Paths to Persuasion
                 The Importance of Central Route Processing
                 Which Route Will Audience Members Follow?
            Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to the Audience
                  Adapting to Audience Disposition
                  Appealing to Your Audience’s Needs
                  Connecting to Your Listeners’ Values
                  Accounting for Audience Beliefs
                  Focusing on Peripheral Beliefs
                  Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits
                  Acknowledging Listeners’ Reservations
             Ethical Persuasion
                  Help Your Audience Make an Informed Decision
                  Research Your Facts
                  Note any Biases
                  Attribute Your Research Properly
             Organizing Your Persuasive Speech
                  Organizing Fact Claims
                  Organizing Value Claims
                  Organizing Policy Claims
                                           Key Term:  Motivated Sequence
                                             Video 17.2: Persuasive Speech using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
                                              Key Term:  Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern
            Chapter Review

18        METHODS OF PERSUASION
            Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker
                  Understanding the Elements of Credibility
                  Building Your Credibility
                  Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility
             Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning Behind Your Message
                              Key Term: Logos
                  Using Evidence
                  Using Reasoning
                                          Key Term: Inductive Reasoning
                                          Video 18.1: “Reasoning: Inductive”
                  Avoiding Logical Fallacies
                                    Key Term: Hasty Generalization
                                     Key Term: Ad Populum (Bandwagon) Fallacy
                                     Key Term: Ad Hominem (Personal Attack) Fallacy
                                    Key Term: Slippery Slope Fallacy
                                     Key Term: False Dilemma Fallacy
                                    Video 18.2: “Fallacy: Either-Or (False Dilemma): Diplomacy vs. WWIII”
             Pathos: Evoking Your Listeners’ Emotions
                                      Key Term: Pathos
                  Using Emotional Appeals
                                  Video 18.3: “Claims: Fact (Appeals to Emotion and Crediblity”
                  Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos
             Sample Persuasive Speech
             Chapter Review
                               Video 18.4: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All”

19         SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEAKING
             Types of Special-Occasion Speeches
             General Guidelines for Special-Occasion Speeches
                Appealing to Your Audience’s Emotions
                             Video 19.1: “Gentz, My Hero. Marilyn Hamilton”
                Matching Your Delivery to the Mood of the Occasion
                Adapting to Your Audience’s Expectation
                Evoking Shared Values
                                Video 19.2: “Language, Delivery and Special Occasion Speeches”
                Respecting Time Constraints
             Strategies for Each Types of Special-Occasion Speech
                Strategies for Speeches of Introduction
                Strategies for Speeches of Presentation
                Strategies for Speeches of Acceptance
                Strategies for Speeches to Memorialize or Eulogize
                Strategies for Speeches to Celebrate
                Strategies for After-Dinner Speeches
             Sample Special-Occasion Speech
             Chapter Review

20         GROUP COMMUNICATION
Effective Group Leadership
                Selecting a Leader
                Leading Meetings
                Managing Conflict
             Effective Group Membership
                Three Types of Member Roles
                Tips for Participating in a Small Group
             Group Decision Making and the Reflective-Thinking Process
                Define the Problem
                Analyze the Problem
                Establish Criteria for Solving the Problem
                Generate Possible Solutions
                Select the Best Solution
             Delivering Group Presentations
                Symposium
                Panel Discussion
                Single Group Representative
             Chapter Review